current time and date
currency: Togrog (MNT)
Official languages
Life expectancy
Literacy rate
National anthem
Internet TLD & calling code:
Coat of arms
Mongolia profile
strategic location between China and Russia
Mongolia history
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest.

After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century.

The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule.

Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924.

The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia.

Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election.

The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08.

The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012.

In 2009, current President ELBEGDORJ of the Democratic Party was elected to office.

In 2010, the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s.

Shortly thereafter, a new party was formed by former president ENKHBAYAR, which adopted the MPRP name.

In the 2012 Parliamentary elections, a coalition of four political parties led by the Democratic Party, gained control of the Parliament.
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Conventional long form: none

Conventional short form: Mongolia

Local long form: none

Local short form: Mongol Uls

Formerly known as: Mongolia
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Mongolia's capital city is Ulaanbaatar
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Mongolia Constitution:

13 January 1992
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Mongolia population growth rate: 1.469%
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Mongolia highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
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Mongolia lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m
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About 1% of Mongolia's land is arable.
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Orkhon River is the Longest River in Mongolia
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Mongolia birth rate is 21 births/1,000 population
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Mongolia infant mortality rate is 36 deaths/1,000 live births
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Mongolia fertility rate is 2.18 children born/woman
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Mongolia climate:

continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
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Top 10 cities of Mongolia with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Ulaanbaatar: 1,340,000
2. Erdenet: 86,866
3. Darkhan: 74,300
4. Choibalsan: 38,150
5. Mörön: 36,082
6. Khovd: 28,601
7. Ölgii: 27,855
8. Bayankhongor: 26,252
9. Arvaikheer: 25,622
10. Ulaangom: 21,406
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Mongolia ethnic groups:

Mongol (mostly Khalkha) - 94.9%
Turkic (mostly Kazakh) - 5%
other (including Chinese and Russian) - 0.1%
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Mongolia Exports:

copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil
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Mongolia Imports:

machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent
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unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; of which 48 members are directly elected from 26 electoral districts, while 28 members are proportionally elected based on a party's share of the total votes; all serve four-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag).
1. Arhangay
2. Bayanhongor
3. Bayan-Olgiy
4. Bulgan
5. Darhan-Uul
6. Dornod
7. Dornogovi
8. Dundgovi
9. Dzavhan (Zavkhan)
10. Govi-Altay
11. Govisumber
12. Hentiy
13. Hovd
14. Hovsgol
15. Omnogovi
16. Orhon
17. Ovorhangay
18. Selenge
19. Suhbaatar
20. Tov
21. Uvs
and 1 municipality (singular - hot): Ulaanbaatar
Political parties and leaders:
Civil Will-Green Party (CWGP) - Dangaasuren EHKHBAT
Democratic Party (DP) - Norov ALTANHUYAG
Mongolian Natinal Democratic party (MNDP) - ENKHSAIKHAN Mendsaikhan
Mongolian People's Party (MPP) - O. ENKHTUVSHIN
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) - Nambar ENKHBAYAR